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:: Ethical Considerations ::

  Ethical Considerations and Malpractice Statement


Editors’ responsibilities

·  To act in a balanced, objective and fair way while carrying out their expected duties, without discrimination on grounds of gender, religious or political beliefs, ethnic or geographical origin of the authors.

·  To handle submissions for sponsored supplements or special issues in the same way as other submissions, so that articles are considered and accepted solely on their academic merit and without commercial influence.

·  To adopt and follow reasonable procedures in the event of complaints of an ethical or conflict nature, in accordance with the policies and procedures of the journal where appropriate. To give authors a reasonable opportunity to respond to any complaints. All complaints should be investigated no matter when the original manuscript was approved. Documentation associated with any such complaints should be retained.

Reviewers’ responsibilities

·  To contribute to the decision-making process, and to assist in improving the quality of the published paper by reviewing the manuscript objectively, in a timely manner

·  To maintain the confidentiality of any information supplied by the editor or author. To not retain or copy the manuscript.

·  To alert the editor to any published or submitted content that is substantially similar to that under review. 

·  To be aware of any potential conflicts of interest (financial, institutional, collaborative or other relationships between the reviewer and author) and to alert the editor to these, if necessary withdrawing their services for that manuscript.

Authors’ responsibilities

·  To maintain accurate records of data associated with their submitted manuscript, and to supply or provide access to these data, on reasonable request. Where appropriate and where allowed by employer, funding body and others who might have an interest, to deposit data in a suitable repository or storage location, for sharing and further use by others.

·  To confirm/assert that the manuscript as submitted is not under consideration or accepted for publication elsewhere. Where portions of the content overlap with published or submitted content, to acknowledge and cite those sources. Additionally, to provide the editor with a copy of any submitted manuscript that might contain overlapping or closely related content. 

·  To confirm that all the work in the submitted manuscript is original and to acknowledge and cite content reproduced from other sources. To obtain permission to reproduce any content from other sources.

·  Authors should ensure that any studies involving human or animal subjects conform to national, local and institutional laws and requirements and confirm that approval has been sought and obtained where appropriate. Authors should obtain express permission from human subjects and respect their privacy.

·  To declare any potential conflicts of interest (e.g. where the author has a competing interest (real or apparent) that could be considered or viewed as exerting an undue influence on his or her duties at any stage during the publication process).

·  To notify promptly the journal editor if a significant error in their publication is identified. To cooperate with the editor to publish an erratum, addendum, corrigendum notice, or to retract the paper, where this is deemed necessary. 

Ø Plagiarism and duplicate submission are serious acts of misconduct. Plagiarism is defined as unreferenced use of published or unauthorized use of unpublished ideas, and may occur at any stage of planning, researching, writing, or publication. Plagiarism takes many forms, from 'passing off' another's paper as the author's own paper, to copying or paraphrasing substantial parts of another's paper (without attribution), to claiming results from research conducted by others. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.


Identification of unethical behavior

·  Misconduct and unethical behavior may be identified and brought to the attention of the editor at any time, by anyone.

·  Whoever informs the editor of such conduct should provide sufficient information and evidence in order for an investigation to be initiated. All allegations should be taken seriously and treated in the same way, until a successful decision or conclusion is reached.


·  Editors may contact the author(s)’ institution or ethics committee.

·  An initial decision should be taken by the editorial board.

·  Evidence should be gathered, while avoiding spreading any allegations beyond those who need to know.

Minor breaches

·  If a minor misconduct happens the author should be given the opportunity to respond to any allegations.

Serious breaches

·  Serious misconduct might require that the employers of the accused be notified. The editor, in consultation with the editorial board as appropriate, should make the decision whether or not to involve the employers, either by examining the available evidence themselves or by further consultation with a limited number of experts.  

·  Informing or educating the author or reviewer where there appears to be a misunderstanding or misapplication of acceptable standards.

·  A more strongly worded letter to the author or reviewer covering the misconduct and as a warning to future behavior.

·  Publication of a formal notice detailing the misconduct.

·  Publication of an editorial detailing the misconduct.

·  A formal letter to the head of the author’s or reviewer’s department or funding agency.

·  Formal retraction or withdrawal of a publication from the journal, in conjunction with informing the head of the author or reviewer’s department, Abstracting & Indexing services and the readership of the publication.

·  Imposition of a formal embargo on contributions from an individual for a defined period.

·  Reporting the case and outcome to a professional organization or higher authority for further investigation and action.

·   Authorship Criteria:

Based on the newly released Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, by the ICMJE, “an Author” is generally considered to be someone who meets the following conditions 1, 2, 3, and 4.

1-Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND

2-Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND

3-Final approval of the version to be published; AND

4-Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

·  Human and Animal Rights:

CJNS will not consider any studies involving humans or animals without the appropriate approval.

Ø  Research involving human subjects, human material, or human data:

Considering human studies, the authors should write whether the procedures were approved by relevant ethic committee on human experimentation.

A statement detailing this, including the name of the ethics committee and the reference number where appropriate, must appear in the manuscript. If a study has been granted an exemption from requiring ethics approval, this should also be detailed in the manuscript (including the name of the ethics committee that granted the exemption). Further information and documentation to support this should be made available to Editors on request.

If no formal ethics committee is available, the authors should indicate whether the procedures were compliant with the last edition of WMA Declaration of Helsinki.

Retrospective ethics approval:

If a study has not been submitted to an ethics committee prior to commencing, retrospective ethics approval usually cannot be obtained and it may not be possible to consider the manuscript for peer review. How to proceed in such cases is at the Editor(s)’ discretion.

Ø  New clinical tools and procedures:

Authors will be expected to have obtained ethics committee approval and informed patient consent for any experimental use of a novel procedure or tool where a clear clinical advantage based on clinical need was not apparent before treatment.

Ø  Research involving animals:

Experimental research on animals must comply with institutional, national, or international guideline (e.g. NIH Policy on Use of laboratory Animals, EU Directive on Use of Animals) s, and where available should have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee. A statement detailing compliance with guidelines and/or ethical approval must be included in the manuscript.

·  Informed Consent:

For all research involving human subjects submitted for publication in CJNS, informed consent to participate in the study should be obtained from participants (or their parent or guardian in the case of children under 16) and a statement to this effect should appear in the manuscript.

Ø  Consent for publication of individual patient data:

Identifying information, including names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions.

For all manuscripts that include details, images, or videos relating to individual participants, written informed consent for the publication of these must be obtained from the participants (or their parent or legal guardian in the case of children under 16) and a statement to this effect should appear in the manuscript. Nonessential identifying details should be omitted. Especially an informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt that anonymity can be maintained. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance, and editors should so note that such alterations do not distort scientific meaning. You can use a consent form from your own institution or region. This documentation must be made available to Editors on request, and will be treated confidentially. In cases where images are entirely unidentifiable and there are no details on individuals reported within the manuscript, consent for publication of images may not be required. The final decision on whether consent to publish is required lies with the Editor.

·  Conflict of Interest:

The authors should disclose all potential conflicts of interest including any research funding, other financial support, and material support for the work, if any exists, in the non-blinded full title page. If there is a disclosure, the editors, reviewers, and reader can interpret the manuscripts with this understanding.


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مجله علوم اعصاب کاسپین Caspian Journal of Neurological Sciences

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