Volume 3, Issue 3 (Summer 2017)                   Caspian.J.Neurol.Sci 2017, 3(3): 159-168 | Back to browse issues page


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Saberi A, Roudbary S, Emamhadi M, Kazemi S. Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis; Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Systematic Review . Caspian.J.Neurol.Sci. 2017; 3 (3) :159-168
URL: http://cjns.gums.ac.ir/article-1-189-en.html
1- Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Neurology, Poursina Hospital, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
2- Neurology Department, Poursina Hospital, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
3- Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury Center, Guilan University of Medical Science, Rasht, Iran
4- Microbiologist, Vice-Chancellor of Research and Technology, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran; kazemi_s@gums.ac.ir
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ABSTRACT
Background:
Analysis of biofluids provides a unique window into the biochemical status of a living organism since the composition of a given biofluid will be modulated according to the level of function of the cells that are intimately concerned with its manufacture and secretion. One of the most successful approaches to biofluid analysis has been the application of NMR spectroscopy.
Objectives: The aim of this study was the survey of the role of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy in differential diagnosis of septic bacterial meningitis.
Methods: Using the search strategy from three databases (MEDLINE/PMC, Web of Science, Scopus), list of references of selected articles and gray literature, without time and language limitation, articles up to March 2017 were entered into this review. In this review, 219 articles were acquired at the primary search. Study selection and quality assessment processes were done based on Cochrane library guidelines. After assessing the quality and inclusion and exclusion criteria, 4 articles were selected and entered into the data synthesis.
Results: The results of 4 studies demonstrated relative elevation of lactate value and extracellular acidosis in bacterial meningitis not in aseptic meningitis. Moreover in most of them, decreasing its level by treatment was evident.
Conclusion: Metabolomic analysis with NMR spectroscopy of cerebrospinal fluid can become a powerful helping in differentiation of septic meningitis from aseptic meningitis.
 
Keywords: Metabolomics; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Meningitis, Bacterial

Introduction
Meningitis is characterized as inflammation of the membranes encompassing the brain and spinal cord. Microbiological causes include bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites (1). The types of bacteria that cause bacterial meningitis vary according to the infected individual's age group. In premature babies and newborns up to three months old, common causes are group B streptococci and bacteria that normally inhabit the digestive tract such as Escherichia coli. Listeria monocytogenes (serotype IVb) is transmitted by the mother before birth and may cause meningitis in the infant (2). Older children are more commonly affected by Neisseria meningitidis, (meningococcus) and Streptococcus pneumonia (serotypes 6, 9, 14, 18 and 23) and those under five by Haemophilus influenza type B (in countries that do not offer vaccination) (3,4). In adults, Neisseria meningitides and Streptococcus pneumonia together cause 80% of bacterial meningitis cases. Danger of infection with Listeria monocytogenes is increased in persons over 50 years old (5,4). The introduction of pneumococcal vaccine has lowered rates of pneumococcal meningitis in both children and adults (6). Viruses that cause meningitis include enteroviruses, herpes simplex virus (generally type 2, which creates most genital wounds; less commonly type 1), varicella zoster virus (known for causing chickenpox and shingles), mumps virus, HIV, and LCMV (7). There are a number of risk factors for fungal meningitis, including the use of immunosuppressant's (such as after organ transplantation), HIV/AIDS (8), and the loss of immunity associated with aging (9). The most common fungal meningitis is cryptococcal  meningitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans (10). A parasitic cause is often assumed when there is a predominance of eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) in the CSF. The most common parasites involved are Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Schistosoma, as well as the conditions cysticercosis, toxocariasis, baylisascariasis, paragonimiasis, and a number of rarer infections and non-infective conditions (11).
Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is a severe, potentially life threatening neurological emergency requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. The appraised incidence of ABM is 0.4-6 per 100 000 adults per year in developed countries. Worldwide, ABM is one of the top 10 causes of infection related death and 30-50% of survivors have permanent neurological disability (1).
They infect the central nervous system (CNS) via inhalation, haematogenous spread, direct extension from dental and paranasal infections, direct implantation (eg, after surgery) or rarely secondary to infections in the epidural or subdural spaces. Imaging is not essential for the diagnosis or management in many cases of ABM and diagnosis is usually based on clinical examination findings and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis (1). In the other words, the most important test in identifying or ruling out meningitis is routine analysis of the CSF through lumbar puncture (LP, spinal tap) It is based on the CSF level of Glucose and Protein and cellular counts (12).
Establishing biomarkers for conditions affecting the central nervous system is an important goal which will aid diagnosis and inform therapy. Metabolomics, a reflection of both genetic and environmental factors, has the potential to define accurate disease-specific biomarkers in neurology. Within the field of neurological disorders, human biofluid NMR metabolic profiles have been characterised in Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), schizophrenia and meningitis. The feasibility of CSF metabolite analysis, using NMR spectroscopy, was initially demonstrated over 20 years ago and recognition that CSF metabolites were related to clinical conditions. More recently, studies of CSF metabolite profiles have demonstrated the differentiation of schizophrenia from healthy controls and separation of viral, tubercular and bacterial meningitis (13).
Since proton magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy was applied by gated decoupling or presaturation method with reduction of the H2O signal to identify the human serum components, such as glucose, lactate, choline, drugs etc., many attempts have been made to apply 1H-NMR spectroscopy in clinical situation, especially for the biochemical examinations of patient samples such as serum, plasma, urine, and blood cells (14). Ex vivo MRS of CSF performed in proven cases of pyogenic meningitis has reported the peaks of cytosolic amino acids (0.9 ppm), lactate (1.33 ppm), alanine (1.47 ppm), acetate (1.92 ppm), and acetoacetate (2.24 ppm) along with reduced levels of glucose. Anaerobic bacterial metabolism is likely to explain increased glucose consumption and consequently lactic acidosis in the CSF (15).
There is a vast range of biochemical, toxicological, and clinical chemical problems that can be addressed using metabolomics based on high resolution 1H-NMR spectroscopy of biomaterials. It should soon be possible to combine genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data sets into comprehensive  ‘‘bionomic’’  systems  for the holistic evaluation of perturbed in in vivo function (16).
A systematic review was conducted to have a clear answer and deep understanding of the topic of concern. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy allows physicians and researchers to obtain biochemical information about the tissues of the human body. This study describes the place of NMR spectroscopy in the diagnosis and management of meningitis.
 
Materials and Method
 
Search Strategy:
This review was established using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines (17). International databases including MEDLINE/PMC, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched. The databases were thoroughly searched for articles with no time limit, until March 2017. Language limitation and type of documents were not set as inclusion criteria.
 
Key words:
The search strategy is described in table 1. The search terms with similar meanings were combined using the OR logic, and the search terms were coupled using the AND logic.
 
Table 1. Search strategy applied in the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases
#1 Meningitis
#2 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
#3 MR Spectroscopy
#4 MRS
#5 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 
#6 Nuclear MR Spectroscopy 
#7 NMR spectroscopy 
#8 NMRS
#9 Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
#10 H MR spectroscopy
#11 H MRS
#1 AND (#2 OR #3 OR #4 OR #5 OR #6 OR #7 OR #8 OR #9 OR #10 OR #11)


Criteria for Inclusion and Exclusion:
 
An article was excluded in our systematic review if it was
  1. An article studied on Animal Model
  2. An article studied on one of the Paranchymal, Intraparanchymal and Focal lesions such as abscess, encephalitis, cerebritis, endocarditis, cerebral microhaemorrhages (microbleeds)
  3. An article studied on immonocompromised host such as HIV+ (Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the causative agent for AIDS.) OR VDRL+ (The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL) is a blood test for Syphilis.)
  4. An article studied patients only after surgery
  5. An article studied on pachymeningitis
  6. An article studied on meningoencephalitis
  7. An article studied on cerebral malaria (malaria infecting the brain)
  8. An article studied on tuberculous meningitis
At first, we evaluated the titles and abstracts of the retrieved articles to determine the initial eligibility; and if necessary, the full articles were studied in detail in order to be selected for the review. Data were extracted by two reviewers. After a detailed study, the remaining articles were included.
 
Assessment of the Quality of Articles:
The quality assessment of the included articles was also a necessary task. There are many international standards for quality measurement of articles. We used the STARD (Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy) which included quality standards for the completeness and transparency of reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies (18).
 
Methods of Data Extraction:
After screening databases and available resources, the initial articles were selected and their data were extracted uniformly.
 
Results
After eliminating the duplicate articles and reviewing the titles and abstracts, 129 articles were obtained for this review. After removing 73 unrelated records, 17 full texts were assessed for eligibility. After reading the full text of the articles, according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria mentioned in the methodology, 2 articles were included into the systematic review. In addition, 2 studies identified through bibliographic cross-reference of articles obtained (figure 1). Figure 1 summarizes the article acquisition based on the PRISMA Flow Diagram.
The studies’ characteristics are listed in table 2. The selected articles (n=4) consisted of three original studies and one case report study.



Figure 1. PRISMA 2009 Flowchart for the Included Studies of Diagnosis of Meningitis Caused by Infectious Agents using MRS
 
Table 2. General features and results of included studies
Author,
Year,
   County
 
Study
type
Number
of participants
(or Samples)
Age
( year)
Case
group
Control
group
Exclusion criteria Type of biofluid/ Sampling site Metabolomic analysis
modality
Main Results
(Concern Diagnosis of Meningitis)
 
 
Coen et al.,
2005,
Australia
 
Original
 
28 patients
(19 male,
10 female)
 
1-79
 
 
adults with community-acquired meningitis or
external ventericulostomy drainage (EVD) -associated ventriculitis
 
subjects without neurological disease
 
Patients who had received therapeutic doses of relevant antibiotic(s) for >18 h (or 1 dose in cases of meningococcal meningitis)
 
CSF / lumbar
 
1H-NMR spectroscopy–based  metabolomics (using a DRX-400 wide bore spectrometer (Bruker) (400.13 MHz))
 
- Disproportionately elevated lactate concentrations in bacterial and fungal meningitis.
- Elevated CSF concentrations of pyruvate and amino acids— particularly alanine, isoleucine, and leucine—were evident in bacterial and fungal meningitis
-Metabonomic analysis clearly distinguished patients with bacterial or fungal meningitis from patients with viral meningitis
 
Bell JD et al.,
1986,
England
 
Original
 
11  patients
(6 male,
 5 female)
 
3-67
 
patients with  diabetes, bacterial meningitis and  Liver failure
 
normal subjects
 
-
 
CSF / lumbar
 
1H-NMR spectroscopy (using a Bruker AM500 and WH400 spectrometers operating in quadrature detection mode at 500 and 400 MHz respectively. All spectra were recorded at a probe temperature of 25°C)
 
Greatly increase lactate ( doublet for lactate at 1.3 ppm present at a concentration of 6.3 mmol/l, but lowered glucose signals, relative to normal adults, with a complete absence of signals from citrate(
 
Matthews et al.,
1989,
Canada
 
Case Report
 
1 man
 
29
 
An encephalopathic patient with pneumococcal
meningitis and severe CSF acidosis
 
Seven young, healthy volunteers were studied while awake and without sensory deprivation.
 
-
 
CSF / lateral and third ventricles
 
 
Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (using a T 5, 1-m bore clinical magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy  system (Philips, Best, Holland) operating at T15 (25.84 MHz for phosphorus 31)
 
The results of Phosphorus MR spectroscopy demonstrated the extracellular acidosis.
Additionally it proposed that  human brain can maintain tight control of intracellular pH even in the presence of marked extracellular metabolic acidosis and  the encephalopathy associated with  meningitis  was not a result of either intracellular acidosis or energy failure
 
Hiraoka et al,
1994,
Japan
 
 
Original
 
34 patients
(16 male, 
18 female)
 
19-76
 
patients with CNS diseases
(CI, CA, BM, VM,  AD, MS, PD, AS, E,  P, DN, HE, SCH, DI,   NTH and OMND)     
 
none
 
-
 
CSF  /  lumbar
 
1H-NMR spectroscopy (using a Varian Unity NMR spectroscopy (399.96 MHz)
The relative lactate concentration was using a semi-quantitatively determined  on the basis of glucose concentration and the ratio of the peak heights ( lactate CH 3/ glucose – αCH ) 
 
-The relative lactate value was elevated in bacterial meningitis (and decreases with treatment) but not in viral meningitis.
1H-NMR spectroscopy of CSF can become a powerful aid in biochemical diagnosis of CNS disease including bacterial meningitis.
 
 
Abbreviations used:
CSF, cerebrospinal fluid;
BM, bacterial meningitis;
LF, Liver failure;
CI, cerebral infarction;      
CA, cerebro-arteriosclerosis;
 
 
VM, viral meningitis;
AD, Alzheimer 's disease;
PD, Parkinson 's disease;
AS, amyotro